Who we are

FLORES, the Flower Research Synectics network is a platform for plant scientists to design, discuss and promote joint collaborative research on diverse flower-related questions.
Founded in 2014, there are currently eight researchers of different countries keeping an active contact and interaction within the network.

Visit our page at Researchgate

Louis Ronse de Craene


Louis Ronse De Craene (Doctorate Leuven, Belgium 1992) is a botanist, having worked at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) for twenty years as Director of the MSc Course in the Biodiversity and Taxonomy of Plants. He remains attached at RBGE as a Research Associate and currently delivers Botanical Consultancy and teaching. His main interests are in floral morphology and development, with the aim of understanding the evolution of flowers. His research concentrates on the circumscription and evolution of specific floral characters, as well as understanding how non-genetic factors affect floral evolution. In 2010 he published an influential book on floral diagrams, as he looks into pragmatic ways of communicating floral diversity and aesthetics. A second edition of the book (2022) incorporates additional families. Through collaborative research with several scholars and other partners of FLO-RE-S, Louis hopes to expand the understanding of morphology as a valuable counterpart of genetics. Current research centers on the significance of changes in merism and floral shape during development, and the origin and evolution of petals, with special emphasis on Caryophyllales and Rosaceae. Louis is part of the editorial board of Journal of Plant Research, and subject editor of Flora.

Recent publications

+ Ronse De Craene L.P. (2022). Floral diagrams. An aid to understanding flower morphology and evolution. 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

+ El Ottra J.H.L., de Albuquerque Melo-de-Pinna G.F., Demarco D., Pirani J.R., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2022). Gynoecium structure in Sapindales and a case study of Trichilia pallens (Meliaceae). Journal of Plant Research 135:157–190. doi: 10.1007/s10265-022-01375-y

+ Ronse De Craene L.P. (2021). Gynoecium structure and development in Caryophyllales: a matter of proportions. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 195(3):437–466. doi: 10.1093/botlinnean/boaa048

+ Wei L., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2020). Hofmeister’s rule’s paradox: the explanation of the changeable carpel position in Caryophyllaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 181(9):911–925. doi: 10.1086/710493

+ Wei L., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2019). What is the nature of petals in Caryophyllaceae? Developmental evidence clarifies their evolutionary origin. Annals of Botany 124(2):281–295. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcz075

+ Ronse De Craene L.P. (2018). Understanding the role of floral development in the evolution of angiosperm flowers: a clarification from different perspectives. Journal of Plant Research 131(3):367–393. doi: 10.1007/s10265-018-1021-1

Personal institutional website at RBGE
Research gate profile

Regine Claßen-Bockhoff


Regine Claßen-Bockhoff is a retired, full university professor at the Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution (iomE), Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany. She is mainly interested in inflorescences and flowers following the view that deep understanding of floral structures demands studies ranging from meristem development to functional phenotypes and evolutionary significance. The main projects of Regine’s lab have been i) inflorescence morphology, biology, and development with a special focus on pseudanthia and floral unit meristems and ii) evolution of the staminal lever mechanism in Salvia flowers (Lamiaceae) including developmental, functional morphological, pollination ecological and phylogenetic work.
During the last years, Regine has been working on a textbook on organismic botany (Die Pflanze. Morphologie, Entwicklung und Evolution von Vielfalt), which will be published in spring 2023 by Springer Spektrum Heidelberg, Germany.

Recent publications

+ Ajani Y., Jamzad Z., Claßen-Bockhoff R. (2022). Floral biology in the endemic Iranian Salvia majdae – implications for taxonomy, character evolution and conservation. Flora 287:151986. doi: 10.1016/j.flora.2021.151986

+ Chinga J., Pérez F., Claßen-Bockhoff R. (2021). The role of heterochrony in Schizanthus flower evolution- a quantitative analysis. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 49:125591. doi: 10.1016/j.ppees.2021.125591

+ Claßen-Bockhoff, R., Franke D., Krähmer H. (2021). Early ontogeny defines the diversification of vascular bundle systems in angiosperms. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 195(3):281–307. doi: 10.1093/botlinnean/boaa084

+ Claßen-Bockhoff, R., Ronse De Craene, L.P.R., Becker A., eds. (2021). From meristems to floral diversity: developmental options and constraints. Frontiers Media SA. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88966-827-4

+ Claßen-Bockhoff R., Ronse De Craene L.P.R., Becker A. (2021). Editorial: From meristems to floral diversity: developmental options and constraints. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9:637954. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2021.637954

Personal institutional website at JGU

 Akitoshi Iwamoto

Akitoshi.jpg Akitoshi Iwamoto is an associate professor at Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo, Japan (Doctor of Science at the University of Tokyo in 2006). He has studied the floral development of basal monocots and relevant groups and is now focusing on the role of mechanical forces at the apex for floral development using a newly developed experimental system. He is also interested in the diversity of shoot organization in Prunus s.l. and kinematic analysis of root growth on the cellular basis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Akitoshi wants to accelerate his projects by collaborating with the members of  FLO-RE-S network and having many visiting researchers focusing on the plant morphology in his country, Japan. Akitoshi is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Plant Research since 2017.

Recent publications

+ Iwamoto A., Bull-Hereñu K. (2018). Floral development: Re-evaluation of its importance. Journal of Plant Research 131:365­–366. doi: 10.1007/s10265-018-1034-9

+ Iwamoto A., Nakamura A., Kurihara S., Otani A., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2018). Floral development of petaloid Alismatales as an insight into the origin of the trimerous Bauplan in monocots flowers. Journal of Plant Research 131(3):395–407. doi: 10.1007/s10265-018-1022-0

+ Iwamoto A. (2017). Floral development of Ceratophyllum demersum with special reference to the effect of mechanical force on meristic variation. (in Japanese with English abstract) Plant Morphology 29(1):75­–80. doi: 10.5685/plmorphol.29.75

+ Cole T., Hilger H.H., Stevens P.F., Iwamoto A. (2017). Japanese version of Angiosperm Phylogeny Poster – Flowering Plant Systematics. ResearchGate poster.

+ Iwamoto A., Izumidate R., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2015). Floral anatomy and vegetative development in Ceratophyllum demersum: A morphological picture of an “unsolved” plant. American Journal of Botany 102(10): 1578–1589. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1500124

+ Iwamoto A., Kondo E., Fujihashi H., Sugiyama M. (2013). Kinematic study of root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana with a novel image-analysis program. Journal of Plant Research 126:187–192. doi: 10.1007/s10265-012-0523-5

Kester Bull-Hereñu


Kester Bull-Hereñu is a Chilean Biologist interested in the morphology and morphogenesis of flowers and inflorescences. He has a PhD from the University of Mainz, Germany under the tutorship of Regine Classen-Bockhoff and has had postdoctoral stances at RBGE, UK in collaboration with Louis Ronse de Craene; and at the National Museum of Natural History in Santiago, Chile.
He has performed editorial tasks at the journals Flora (Elsevier), Plant Systematics and Evolution and Journal of Plant Research (Springer).
He is also the founder of the NGO Laboratorio Flores which is encouraged by the interdisciplinary exchange of Art and Science.

Recent publications

+ Bull-Hereñu K., dos Santos P., Toni J.F.G., El Ottra J.H.L., Thaowetsuwan, P., Jeiter J., Ronse De Craene L.P., Iwamoto, A. (2022). Mechanical Forces in Floral Development. Plants 11(5):661. doi: 10.3390/plants11050661

+Bull-Hereñu K. (2020). The genus Malesherbia Ruiz & Pav. (Passifloraceae) in Chile. Phytotaxa 468(1):1–44. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.468.1.1

+ Bull-Hereñu K., Ronse de Craene L. (2020). Ontogenetic base for the variation of flowers in Malesherbia Ruiz & Pav. (Passifloraceae). Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 8:202. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.00202

+ Bull-Hereñu K., Ronse de Craene L., Pérez F. (2018). Floral meristem size and organ number correlation in Eucryphia Cav. (Cunoniaceae). Journal of Plant Research 131(3):429–441. doi: 10.1007/s10265-018-1030-0

+ Bull-Hereñu K., Ronse De Craene L., Pérez F. (2016). Flower meristematic size correlates with heterostylous morphs intwo Chilean Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) species. Flora 221:14–21. doi: 10.1016/j.flora.2016.02.009

Research Gate profile

Juliana Leite El Ottra


Juliana Hanna Leite El Ottra is a Brazilian Biologist interested in the study of morphology and morphogenesis of reproductive structures under a functional and phylogenetic perspective, especially focusing her research in Rutaceae. She has a PhD from the University of São Paulo, Brazil (2014), and a postdoctoral fellow at the same university (2018). Since 2017, she has been working in temporary positions in highly rated public universities in Brazil, giving courses on plant biology, systematics, botany education, and graduate courses for science teachers. Also, she currently collaborates with research groups of Brazil and to the FLO-RE-S group. At present, she is working at the University of São Paulo (USP), in the Biological Science course.

Selected publications

+ El Ottra J. H. L., Lima C.M., Gomes M. K., Nogueira A., Lopes N. P. G, Berchez F. A. S., Pirani J.R. (accepted) Plantas Notáveis do Parque CienTec. São Paulo: EDUSP, 91 p.

+ El Ottra J.H.L., de Albuquerque Melo-de-Pinna G.F., Demarco D., Pirani J.R., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2022). Gynoecium structure in Sapindales and a case study of Trichilia pallens (Meliaceae). Journal of Plant Research 135:157–190. doi: 10.1007/s10265-022-01375-y

+ Paschoalini G.O., Pirani J.R., Demarco D., El Ottra J.H.L. (2022). Revisiting pericarp structure, dehiscence and seed dispersal in Galipeeae (Zanthoxyloideae, Rutaceae). Brazilian Journal of Botany 45:1–15. doi: 10.1007/s40415-021-00779-9

+ Groppo M.G., Lemos L.J.C., Ferreira P.L., Ferreira C., Bruniera C.P.B., Castro N.M., Pirani J.P., El Ottra J.H.L., Kallunki J.A. (2020). A tree nymph of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Dryades (Galipeinae, Rutaceae), a new neotropical genus segregated from Conchocarpus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 154:106971. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2020.10697

+ El Ottra J.H.L., Demarco D., Pirani J.R. (2019). Comparative floral structure and evolution in Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutaceae) and its implications at different systematic levels. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 191(1):30-101. doi: 10.1093/botlinnean/boz029

+ El Ottra J.H.L., Pirani J.R., Pansarin E.R. (2016). Floral biology and pollination of two sympatric species of Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutaceae) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Flora 221:107–116. doi: 10.1016/j.flora.2015.12.006

Research Gate profile

Patrícia dos Santos


Patrícia dos Santos graduated in Biology in 2010 (University of Lisbon) and conducted an MSc in Biodiversity and Plant Taxonomy in 2011 (University of Edinburgh). She has worked on flower development of Montiaceae and Portulacaceae (Caryophyllales) for her MSc thesis and has been particularly interested in the evolution of petals and stamens since then. Her research interests lie mostly in angiosperm evolution and ecological adaptations explained by reproductive morphology and mechanisms.
Currently, Patrícia is conducting a PhD in Biodiversity, Genetics and Evolution under the BIODIV doctoral program at the University of Lisbon in collaboration with the University of Basel. Her PhD project is on the adaptive radiation of Aeonium (Crassulaceae) from the Canary Islands.

Recent publications

+ Bull-Hereñu K., dos Santos P., Toni J.F.G., El Ottra J.H.L., Thaowetsuwan, P., Jeiter J., Ronse De Craene L.P., Iwamoto, A. (2022). Mechanical Forces in Floral Development. Plants 11(5):661. doi: 10.3390/plants11050661

+ Messerschmid T.F.E., Wehling J., Bobon N., Kahmen A., Klak C., Los J.A., Nelson D., dos Santos P., de Vos J.M., Kadereit G. (2021). Carbon isotope composition of plant photosynthetic tissues reflects a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) continuum in the majority of CAM lineages. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 51:125619. doi: 10.1016/j.ppees.2021.125619

+ Brilhante M.A., Roxo G., Catarino S., dos Santos P., Reyes-Betancort J.A., Caujapé-Castells J., Sequeira M.M. Talhinhas P, Romeiras M.M. 2021. Diversification of Aeonium Species Across Macaronesian Archipelagos: Correlations Between Genome-Size Variation and Their Conservation Status. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9:607338. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2021.607338

+ Deus E., Silva J.S., Larcombe M.J., Catry F.X., Queirós L., dos Santos P., Matias H., Águas A., Rego F.C. (2019). Investigating the invasiveness of Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal: site-scale drivers, reproductive capacity and dispersal potential. Biological Invasions 21(6):2027–2044. doi: 10.1007/s10530-019-01954-6

+ Cruz de Carvalho R., dos Santos P., Branquinho C. (2018). Production of moss‐dominated biocrusts to enhance the stability and function of the margins of artificial water bodies. Restoration Ecology 26(3):419–421. doi: 10.1111/rec.12688

Personal webpage
Institutional personal website at U Lisboa
Research Gate profile

Google Scholar

João Felipe Toni


João Felipe G. Toni, born 1982, studied biology and education at São Paulo University, Brazil, and in 2010 trained the Goethean approach to science at The Nature Institute, Ghent, New York, USA. As of 2011 he has worked as a research associate at the Institute of Contextual Science at the Goetheanum, in Dornach, Switzerland. João Felipe pursued a MSc. in plant ecology and evolutionary morphology (Thesis: Comparative Morphology of the Perianth in Sanguisorbeae, Rosaceae) at the University of Basel in cooperation with the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland, under the supervision of Dr. Louis Ronse De Craene. Since 2015 he is a member of FLO-RE-S research group, and more recently, he has become a member of The European Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology.
Currently, he is conducting research on the history of botany, Goethe’s morphology, flower development and angiosperm evolution.

Recent publications

+ Toni J.F.G. (2017). Form resemblance between the white-berried mistletoe (Viscum album L.) and five host trees. Arte Médica Ampliada 37:65–77.

+ Toni J.F.G., Richter R. (2017). Evolving Morphology, 200 years of Goethe’s Zur Morphologie. Conference paper: International Meeting of History, Philosophy and Sociology Studies in Biology, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

+ Toni J.F.G. (2017). Comparative morphology of the perianth in the tribe Sanguisorbeae (Rosaceae). Master Thesis, University of Basel.

Personal webpage
Personal institutional website at Goetheanum
Research Gate profile
Bellis group

Pakkapol Thaowetsuwan


Pakkapol Thaowetsuwan is a botanist from Thailand. Currently, he is a PhD student at the University of Edinburgh and the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. His research interests are floral morphology and the development mechanism behind their diversity and evolution. Previously, he worked on floral morphology and anatomy of a lesser-known genus Ophiocaryon from the family Sabiaceae which contributes to understanding floral diversity and evolution in order Proteales and also basal eudicots grade. His ongoing project is about floral diversity and evolution in the non-cyathium Euphorbiaceae genus Croton and related genera.

Recent publications

+ Thaowetsuwan P., Honorio Coronado E.N., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2017). Floral morphology and anatomy of Ophiocaryon, a paedomorphic genus of Sabiaceae. Annals of Botany 120(5):819-832. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcx115

Research Gate profile

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close