Who we are

FLORES, the Flower Research Synectics network is a platform for plant scientists to design, discuss and promote joint collaborative research on diverse flower-related questions.
Founded in 2014, there are currently eight researchers of different countries keeping an active contact and interaction within the network.

Visit our page at Researchgate

Louis Ronse de Craene


Louis Ronse De Craene (Doctorate Leuven, Belgium 1992) is a botanist, working at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh since 2002 as Director of the MSc Course in the Biodiversity and Taxonomy of Plants. His main interests are in floral morphology and development, with the aim of understanding the evolution of flowers. His research concentrates on the circumscription and evolution of specific floral characters, as well as understanding how non-genetic factors affect floral evolution. In 2010 he published an influential book on floral diagrams, as he looks into pragmatic ways of communicating floral diversity and aesthetics. A second edition of the book (2022) incorporates additional families. Through collaborative research with several scholars and other partners of FLO-RE-S, Louis hopes to expand the understanding of morphology as a valuable counterpart of genetics. Current research centers on the significance of changes in merism and floral shape during development, and the origin and evolution of petals, with special emphasis on Caryophyllales and Rosaceae.

Louis is part of the editorial board of Journal of Plant Research, associate editor of Plant Systematics and Evolution, and subject editor of Flora.

Recent publications
+ Ronse De Craene L.P. (2018). Understanding the role of floral development in the evolution of angiosperm flowers: a clarification from different perspectives. Journal of Plant Research 131: 367-393.

+ Wei L., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2019). What is the nature of petals in Caryophyllaceae? Developmental evidence clarifies their evolutionary origin. Annals of Botany 124: 281-295.

+ Wei L., Ronse De Craene L.P. (2020). Hofmeister’s rule’s paradox: the explanation of the changeable carpel position in Caryophyllaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 181: 911–925.

+ Ronse De Craene L.P. (2021). Gynoecium structure and development in Caryophyllales. A matter of proportions. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 195: 437–466.

+ Ronse De Craene L.P. (2022). Floral diagrams. An aid to understanding flower morhology and evolution. 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Personal institutional website at RBGE
Research gate profile

Regine Claßen-Bockhoff


Regine Claßen-Bockhoff is a full university professor at the Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution (iomE) at the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany. She is mainly interested in inflorescences and flowers following the philosophy that deep understanding of floral structures demands studies ranging from meristem development to functional phenotypes and evolutionary significance. The main projects of Regine’s lab are i) inflorescence development with a special focus on pseudanthia and floral unit meristems and ii) evolution of the staminal lever mechanism in Salvia flowers (Lamiaceae) including developmental, functional morphological, pollination ecological and phylogenetic work.
Currently, Regine is working on a textbook on organismic botany (Die Pflanze. Evolution und Entwicklung organismischer Vielfalt), which will be published in 2018/2019 by Springer Heidelberg, Germany.

Recent publications
+ Claßen-Bockhoff R, Arndt M. 2018. Flower-like heads from flower-like meristems: pseudanthium development in Davidia involucrata (Nyssaceae). Journal of Plant Research 131: 443-458 doi.org/10.1007/s10265-018-1029-6
+ Naghiloo S, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2017. Understanding the unique flowering sequence in Dipsacus fullonum: evidence from geometrical changes during head development. PLoS ONE 12 (3): e017409. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174091
+ Will M, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2017. Time to split Salvia s.l. (Lamiaceae) – new insights from Old World Salvia phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 109: 33-58. doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.12.041
+ Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. The shoot concept of the flower: still up to date? Flora 221: 46-53. doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2015.11.012
+ Ott D, Hühn P, Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Salvia apiana – a carpenter bee flower? Flora 221: 82-91. doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2915.12.008
+ Claßen-Bockhoff R, Bull-Hereñu K. 2013. Towards an ontogenetic understanding of inflorescence diversity. Annals of Botany 112: 1523-1542. doi:10.1093/aob/mct009

Personal institutional website at JGU

Akitoshi Iwamoto

Akitoshi.jpg Akitoshi Iwamoto is an associate professor of Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo, Japan (Doctor of Science in the University of Tokyo in 2006). He has studied the floral development of basal monocots and relevant groups and is now focusing on the role of mechanical forces at apex for floral development with using a newly developed experimental system. He is also interested in the diversity of shoot organization in Prunus s.l. and kinematic analysis of root growth on cellular basis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Akitoshi wants to accelarate his projects collaborating the members of  FLO-RE-S networks and have many visiting researchers focusing on the plant morphology in his country, Japan.
Akitoshi is a member of the editorial board of Journal of Plant Research since 2017.

Recent publications
+ Iwamoto A., Bull-Hereñu K. (2018). Floral development: Re-evaluation of its importanceJournal of Plant Research 131: 365­–366
+ Iwamoto A., Nakamura A., Kurihara S., OtaniA., Ronse De CraeneL. P. (2018). Floral development of petaloid Alismatales as an insight into the origin of the trimerous Bauplan in the flower of the Monocots. Journal of Plant Research 131: 395–407
+ Iwamoto A. (2017) . Floral development of Ceratophyllum demersum with special reference to the effect of mechanical force on meristic variation. (in Japanese with English abstract) Plant Morphology 29: 75­–80
+ Cole T., Hilger H. H., Stevens P. F., Iwamoto A. (2017). Japanese version of Angiosperm Phylogeny Poster – Flowering Plant Systematics. ResearchGate poster
+ Iwamoto A., Izumidate R., Ronse De Craene L. P. (2015). Floral anatomy and vegetative development in Ceratophyllum demersum: A morphological picture of an “unsolved” plant. American Journal of Botany 102: 1578–1589
+ Iwamoto A., Kondo E., Fujihashi H., Sugiyama M. (2013) Kinematic study of root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana with a novel image-analysis program. Journal of Plant Research. 126: 187–192.

Kester Bull-Hereñu


Kester Bull-Hereñu is a Chilean Biologist currently working in floral ontogeny of the Southamerican genus Malesherbia at the National Museum of Natural History in Santiago, Chile. With a PhD in the University of Mainz, Germany under tutorship of Regine Classen-Bockhoff and postdoctoral stances at RBGE, UK in collaboration with Louis Ronse de Craene, its main interest resides in morphology and development of flower and inflorescences. He is also lecturer at the Education Faculty of the Alberto Hurtado University in Santiago and founder of the NGO Laboratorio Flores which is encouraged with the interdisciplinary exchange of Art and Science. Since February 2018 Kester is associate editor of the Journal Plant Systematics and Evolution.

Recent publications
+ Bull-Hereñu K., Ronse de Craene L., Pérez F. 2018 Floral meristem size and organ number correlation in Eucryphia Cav. (Cunoniaceae). Journal of Plant Research 131: 429-441
+ Ronse De Craene L., Bull-Hereñu K. 2016 Obdiplostemony: the occurrence of a transitional stage linking robust flower configurations. Annals of Botany 117:709-724
+ Ajani Y., Bull-Hereñu K. Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2016. Patterns of flower development in Apiaceae–Apioideae. Flora 221: 38-41
+ Bull-Hereñu K., Ronse De Craene L., Pérez F. 2016. Flower meristematic size correlates with heterostylous morphs intwo Chilean Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) species. Flora 221: 14-21
+ Bull-Hereñu K., Claßen-Bockhoff R., Ronse De Craene L. 2016. The FLO-RE-S network for contemporary studies in flower structureand biology. Flora 221: 1-3

Research Gate profile

Juliana Leite El Ottra


Juliana Hanna Leite El Ottra is a Brazilian Biologist currently working in floral structure and evolution of neotropical groups of Sapindales, focusing on Rutaceae, Meliaceae and Simaroubaceae. With a PhD in the University of São Paulo under tutorship of José Rubens Pirani, and postdoctoral fellow at the same university.
Its main research interest resides in floral structure including ontogeny, as well as functional aspect of floral organs through floral biology and pollination studies.
At present, Juliana is a visiting professor at the Federal University of ABC (UFABC).

Recent publications
+ Nogueira, A., Valadão-Menezes, L.B., El Ottra, J. H. L., Guimarães, E., Cardoso-Gustavson, P., Quinalha, M. M., Paulino, J. V., Rando, J. G. 2018. Relationship of floral morphology and development with the pattern of bee visitation in a species with pollen-flowers, Chamaechrista desvauxii (Fabaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. DOI/10.1093/botlinnean/boy008/4952149.
+ Alves, G.G.N.; El Ottra, J.H.L.; Devecchi, M.F.; Demarco, D.; Pirani, J.R. 2017. Structure of the flower of Simaba (Simaroubaceae) and its anatomical novelties. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 183:162-176
+ El Ottra, J.H.L., Pirani, J.R., Pansarin, E.R. 2016. Tackling pollination of tubular flowers in Rutaceae: a case study of Conchocarpus rubrus (Galipeinae, Rutaceae). Brazilian Journal of Botany 39 (3): 913-924.
+ El Ottra, J.H.L., Pirani, J.R., Pansarin, E.R. 2016. Floral biology and pollination of two sympatric species of Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutaceae) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Flora 221: 107-116.
+ El Ottra, J.H.L., Pirani, J.R., Endress, P. K. 2013. Fusion within and between whorls of floral organs in Galipeinae (Rutaceae): structural features and evolutionary implications. Annals of Botany 111: 821 – 837

Research Gate profile

Patrícia dos Santos

patriciaPatrícia dos Santos graduated in Biology in 2010 (at the University of Lisbon) and conducted an MSc in Biodiversity and Plant Taxonomy in 2011 (at The University of Edinburgh). She have worked on flower development of Montiaceae and Portulacaceae (Caryophyllales) for her MSc thesis and carried on studying this topic since then, with special focus on the evolution of petals and stamens. Her research interests lie mostly on angiosperm evolution and ecological adaptation explained by morphological reproductive characters, flower morphology and pollination syndromes.
Currently, Patrícia is conducting a PhD in Biodiversity, Genetics and Evolution under the BIODIV doctoral program at the University of Lisbon. Her PhD project is on the adaptive radiation of Aeonium (Crassulaceae) in the Macaronesia.

Recent publications
+ dos Santos P., Matias H., Deus E., Águas A., Silva J. 2015. Fire effects on capsules and encapsulated seeds from Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal. Plant Ecology. doi: 10.1007/s11258-015-0544-y
+ Ronse de Craene L., Iwamoto,A., Bull-Hereñu K., dos Santos P., Luna-Castro J., Farrar J. 2014. Understanding the structure of flowers – the wonderful tool of floral formulae: a response to Prenner & al. Taxon 63(5): 1103–1111. doi: 10.12705/635.35
+ Ronse de Craene L., dos Santos P., Brockington S. 2013. Androecial evolution in Caryophyllales in light of a paraphyletic Molluginaceae. American Journal of Botany 100(9): 1757–1778. doi: 10.3732/ajb.13000
+ dos Santos P., Brockington S., Glover B., Ronse de Craene L. 2012. Micromorphological evidence for androecium origin of Claytonia (Montiaceae) petaloids. Modern Phytomorphology 1(1): 23–25

Personal webpage
Institutional personal website at U Lisboa
Research Gate profile

Google Scholar

João Felipe Toni


João Felipe G. Toni, born 1982, studied biology and education at São Paulo University, Brazil, and in 2010 trained the Goethean approach to science at The Nature Institute, Ghent, New York, USA. As of 2011 he has worked as a research associate at the Institute of Contextual Science at the Goetheanum, in Dornach, Switzerland. João Felipe pursued a MSc. in plant ecology and evolutionary morphology (Thesis: Comparative Morphology of the Perianth in Sanguisorbeae, Rosaceae) at the University of Basel in cooperation with the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland, under the supervision of Dr. Louis Ronse De Craene. Since 2015 he is a member of FLO-RE-S research group, and more recently, he has become a member of The European Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology.
Currently, he is conducting research on history of botany, Goethe’s morphology, flower development and angiosperm evolution.

Recent publications
+ Toni JFG 2017 Form resemblance between the white-berried mistletoe (Viscum album L.) and five host trees. Arte Médica Ampliada 37: 65–77.
+ Toni JFG, Richter R 2017 Evolving Morphology, 200 years of Goethe’s Zur Morphologie. Conference paper: International Meeting of History, Philosophy and Sociology Studies in Biology, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
+ Toni JFG 2017 Comparative morphology of the perianth in the tribe Sanguisorbeae (Rosaceae). Master Thesis, University of Basel.

Personal webpage
Personal institutional website at Goetheanum
Research Gate profile
Bellis group

Pakkapol Thaowetsuwan


Pakkapol Thaowetsuwan is a botanist from Thailand. Currently, he is a PhD student at the University of Edinburgh and the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. His research interest are floral morphology and development mechanism behind their diversity and evolution. Previously, he worked on floral morphology and anatomy of a lesser known genus Ophiocaryon from the family Sabiaceae which contribute to understand floral diversity and evolution in order Proteales and also basal eudicots grade. His ongoing project is about floral diversity and evolution in non-cyathium Euphorbiaceae genus Croton and related genera.

Recent publications
+ Thaowetsuwan P, Honorio Coronado EN, Ronse De Craene LP 2017 Floral morphology and anatomy of Ophiocaryon, a paedomorphic genus of Sabiaceae. Annals of Botany 120(5): 819-832.

Research Gate profile

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close